The Clinical or Case History Method:
This method is in fact an elaboration and extension of the daybook method which is employed in the study of child development. In order to discover the cause of adjustment problems we often explore the past history and present life situation on the basis of available information. This method also provides solution to the individual’s social or emotional adjustment problem. The clinical method involves collaboration of three professionals. Examination of signs of physical illness is made by a physician; house and social conditions related are studied by a social worker and clinical and psychometric psychologist who administer various personality tests.
After probing the whole information and record and considering the case in a meeting jointly, some kind of therapy may be recommended in some cases. In some circumstances some special kind of training or change in home or living setup. Is suggested an ideal psychological clinic also provides a follow up to check whether the recommendations have been carried out and any progress or improvement in the case has taken place.
The major functions are, thus, involved in the clinical method, namely:
a. Compiling information concerning personality and emotional adjustment problems of individuals. This also provides means to observe and interpreting facts related to the complaints in view.
b. Attempting to modify behaviour of the individual concerned, in the interest of greater personal and social welfare.
Information about the patient’s past are gathered through interviews and relevant tests for diagnostic purpose and for treatment some therapy is used. Referential service is also provided when necessary for psychiatrist’s treatment whose work is facilitated to a large extent by the clinical psychologist. . Problems like poor performance of the thil4 at school, marital adjustment and any other behavioral, psychological disorders of neurotic (a mild) psychotic (severe), nature fall in the domain of clinical method.
The Survey Method:
In the situations concerning public opinion, attitudes, prejudice, marketing problems or any other where masses and general public are required to be contacted, this method is the best to use. Often it is not feasible to spend very long time in the field concerned to obtain data about all the individuals in a group or community a good deal of valuable information may be obtained .through a survey. While conducting a survey the investigation may use scheduled (written) questionnaire or oral interviews to obtain data from selected group.
He has to choose his group carefully as it is important to make the group a really representative sample of the larger group or universe in which he is interested for survey. A sample is drawn from a universe, in such a manner that every person has an equal chance of being selected. In the case the sample is not a representative one in the real sense the data obtained in the survey will be of little value.
People’s liking and disliking of political leaders and other similar subjects are the most widely used type, especially in the general election days of campaign. In commerce and industry it is increasingly used as a means of market survey. This type of polls is used for determining consumer preferences and improving employee management relations. At the time of introducing a new product the organizations conduct such surveys to find feasibility of marketing and prospects of the particular product. Companies often probe popularity of their consumer goods items for comparison with counter – parts and further future planning and sale promotion policies.
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