Are researchers who maintain frequent contact with science, and after long hours of research have made ??significant progress in the fight against disease?
In our day-to-day lives, we don’t often take time to appreciate just how lucky we are to be surrounded by so much knowledge and technology that improves our lives, from mundane machines like telephones to lifesaving medical devices like MRIs. But all of these things we now take for granted started somewhere, and at the end of 2013, we want to celebrate the top science discoveries made this year that could be making our lives even better in the future.
Research based on a scientific methodology have yielded very positive results others not so much , however, have always had a great significance. Investigators have been in contact with each particle wanting to discover .
In an era of constant innovation and discovery, we do not realize that most inventions take years to develop. But sometimes, all it takes is an accident. As we will show some of the major discoveries made by mistake or accident.
As usual whenever the close of a year is shaping up, begin to bloom, with ritual timeliness, retrospective listings to choose the most important events during this period. In keeping with this tradition, prestigious publications have already made your selection of the most important scientific discoveries of 2013.
Obviously any listing involves a significant degree of subjectivity-even in cases where selective criteria for defining and prioritizing the elements included. However, noting that this, like any other list is not final or absolute, we consider interesting to share our own selection. And once clarified the above, proceed to this brief review of some of the golden moments of scientific development this year.
The year is about to finish and during this 2013 numerous inventions, great discoveries and technological advances have greatly contributed to it science and the development of new knowledge. Since the discovery of billions of planets similar to Earth the ability to edit the genomes or the discovery of more than a hundred new species, today I want to invite you to review some of the most significant of the year, those that rocked the scientific community.
Cancer Immunotherapy cotra opens a new hope for treating the disease. The scientific community experienced a change of scene in 2013 when logan promising trials in cancer immunotherapy, creating mini organs through stem cell and vaccine design strategies.
Science magazine published its annual list of the discoveries of the year. First is the new treatments that drive T cells and other immune cells to fight cancer. A finding that opens a more promising outlook in combating this disease.
After decades of research, the use of drugs to stimulate the defences of the cancer patient and be themselves which kill cancer cells, called immunotherapy. So far, this strategy to harness the immune system to attack tumours only works for some cancers and for a few patients, so it is important not to exaggerate the immediate benefits. But many experts are convinced they are witnessing the birth of an important new paradigm for cancer treatment.
The method, which represents a change of approach in the treatment of cancer , uses the body’s immune system to fight tumors rather than attacking them directly with chemicals or radiation.
Several of today’s advances in immunotherapy against cancer can be traced to the late eighties, when French researchers identified a receptor on T cells , called CTLA -4.
James Allison discovered that this receptor T cells warned invaders attack with full force . In the mid- nineties. Alison showed blocking CTLA – 4 in mice could lose to T cells against tumor cells in animals , shrinking dramatically .
Meanwhile , Japanese researchers identified another “brake” on the T cell known as PD-1 . Clinical trials involving this receptor began in 2006, and preliminary results in small groups of patients appear promising .
Another area of ??interest involves genetically modifying T cell tumors to make them white . In 2011 this strategy , known as antigenic chimeric therapy, or therapy CAR , electrified the field of cancer research, and is now the subject of numerous clinical trials particularly in blood cancers .
Consequently , several pharmaceutical companies that wanted nothing to do with immunotherapy several years ago are now investing much .
There is still much uncertainty about how many patients will benefit from these therapies, many of which are still experimental and what will work best forms of cancer . Scientists are busy trying to identify biomarkers that could provide answers and thinking of ways to return to the more powerful treatments .
But a new chapter in cancer research and treatment has begun and Science recognizes this by acknowledging the immunotherapy of cancer as the most significant scientific discovery of 2013 .
Neutrinos are Intergalactic South Pole
The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, a telescope of 1 cubic kilometre size arranged at the South Pole for particle astrophysics experiments, managed the first discovery of very high energy neutrinos on Earth and not only that, it also determined that these come from beyond the solar system, possibly from other galaxies.
While some indications that neutrinos can be created in our atmosphere or in the sun also, it was determined that most of the IceCube found in November 2013 came from other galaxies. Undoubtedly, this finding is more than essential to unravel the mysteries of these galactic subatomic particles.
Signs of what could be a Sign of Dark Matter
In April 2013, NASA scientists who developed the AMS experiment on the International Space Station reported the discovery of what appear to be dark matter particles from the center of our galaxy itself. However, the results were inconclusive and in October the same year, another experiment called LUX determined that it was not such particles actually.
Without giving up, a new and more complex analysis of the results was carried out two months later and this time it was determined that there were more opportunities than in the case of dark matter particles. The particles are and until proven otherwise, the hard work of scientists to discover what kind of material is not cease.
The Explanation for the Pause in Global Warming
Global warming, one of the largest, most complex and controversial environmental issues of our time , had a mysterious and surprising break from the constant increase from bringing so many decades ago. The heat intensified and temperatures rose until the late 90 slowed , stopping mysteriously . This gave sufficient reasons the sceptics as to ensure that global warming was not real and that if it was, it would be natural to our planet.
However, in October of that year ended all doubts when a group of scientists at The Earth Institute, Columbia University , found that global warming is not over , did not pause nor was slowed , but simply was absorbed in part by certain ocean regions of great extent . It does not mean that this is actually a good thing , in fact , the scientists found that the temperature of these oceanic regions is increasing up to 15 times faster than the last 10,000 years , which is very alarming. We have seen what would happen if the temperature of the oceans increases, remember?
How to See Inside a Brain
In April 2013, a group of scientists from Stanford University discovered a brand new complex chemical treatment and able to return almost transparent brain tissues. With this discovery, it is possible to apply special dyes and fluorescent labels that can help detect various neurotransmitters and brain chemicals, essential to increase our knowledge about this mysterious and important body. The treatment is applicable to humans and it worked 100% with laboratory mice. Experts say this treatment will make possible great advances and other discoveries about numerous medical problems, allowing a better understanding of disorders such as autism or Alzheimer’s.
Editing genomes was achieved by developing a new rapid, efficient and accurate to manipulate fragments of the human genetic code by the CRISPR system method. This uses a strategy that many bacteria develop: using RNA to DNA identification and enzymes and then modify it or break it into fragments, generating mutations. This great discovery and development continues after the excellent results demonstrated, the projects are so optimistically already invested huge sums of money to support their development.
New Species Discovered
Every year new species are discovered, but unlike previous years, in 2013 a huge amount discovered new copies. From birds to fish, amphibians, reptiles, arachnids and amazing mammals, such as olinguito the first carnivorous species of the family of mammals known for 35 years. As another example, only 1 study was conducted in Suriname, 60 previously unknown species were found, which is a very encouraging sign in terms of biology and zoology, as well as closing one year with a flourish for these branches of science.
The Oldest Signs of Life History
Complete fossil of a small microbial group dating from about 3500 million years: In western Australia, the November 8, 2013, signs of life senior history were discovered. This important discovery in 2013 it starred a group of researchers from the Old Dominium University, U.S., and certainly was not one of the most important discoveries in the history of archaeology but the sciences themselves.
Electronic Implants Biodegradable
The era of biogenetic, bio robotics and bioengineering is here a long time ago and 2013 was an exceptional year for all of them. Electronic Circuits and biodegradable implants are a great example. Perhaps still fails to fully understand how fascinating is this progress (moral issues often come into play), but among other things, electronic implants such as these placed within the body of an individual heat may destroy microbes, help heal wounds and others, then disintegrating within the body and being eliminated by the natural functioning of metabolism. Future cyborgs are becoming closer to being a complete reality.
Create Organs with Stem Cells
The medicine, together with genetic and thanks to the most fascinating technological developments also led to breakthroughs in this field. From stem cells, this year scientists managed to create various organs (including brain) in the laboratory, with nothing more than human skin cells reprogrammed.
Appropriate and necessary chemical environment is provided, the cells were reprogrammed stem these become the desired cell type (in the case of the brain, neurons) and by themselves are organized as structures (like a brain was achieved similar to a human fetus). In Japan and major advances and improvements in the field were achieved.
Billions of Earth -like Planets
Without any doubt , the largest and most important discovery that could reach science would be able to contact or locate alien life. As the Kepler space telescope that NASA found this year may be more than useful in these terms , enough to effectively determine that in our galaxy there are a billion planets that are very similar to the data we inhabit .
After researching some 42,000 stars with strong similarities to the Sun , it was shown that between 11 billion and 40 billion planets the will orbit with characteristics very similarities to Earth with the Sun and about one billion are so similar as to accommodate various types of alien life. The area you are such promising planets is known as ” Near Goldilocks ” because they are not very cold regions and not very hot , capable of harbouring life and either smart or not, it is most interesting .
There are many times those jumps to news several scientific studies that confirm anything that even the lowliest of mortals have known no studio involved. But still, scientists are suspicious, and therefore virtually all studies are performed. And they go to finishing the year with some of these truisms.
Without basic scientific information is impossible to achieve a true citizen empowerment. Today more than ever, making decisions in public space involves knowing the paths of science as well as having teachers and public opinion makers who know and disclose.
Living outside the latest findings of science means to be blind in a world where our thinking and acting is shocked by these discoveries. Remain unaware about scientific progress is like sailing a ship without a compass, without communication and without basic maritime knowledge to decide which port we want to go and how.
Truly fascinating , do not you think ? What did you think of these findings? How you set out this list if you were to sort according to their importance and usefulness ? Would you add any more to it?